Beginners Guide for Groupadd Command in Linux

Linux administrators are allowed to create “normal user accounts” with a range from 1000 to 60000 uids, where uid 0 is reserved for “root users” and “system users” are allowed uids from 1 to 999. Normal users might rarely reach this threshold, creating so many

How to Force User to Change Their Password on Next Login in Linux

When you create a new user account and set a password for that account, the “password expires” status is set to never (ex: 0). Apart from that, the “password inactive” and “account expires” statuses are also set to never, and your last password change will

Beginners Guide for Passwd Command in Linux

The passwd command is used to modify the user’s password and its properties, like deleting the password, expiring the password, deactivating the account, and many more. Also Read: Change user account password information using chage command The owner of an account only has permission to

Beginners Guide for Chown Command in Linux

The chown command is used to modify the user and group ownership of files and directories. It will be helpful to restrict the access permissions for files and directories to selective users and members of group. Tutorial Details Description Chown (Change Ownership) Difficulty Level Moderate

Beginners Guide for Chmod Command in Linux

The chmod command is used to modify the access permissions of files and directories. It can modify the read, write, and executable permissions, which can help you control shell script execution or specific file modifications. In this article, you will learn how to change referenced

What is /dev/null in Linux?

The “/dev/null” file is a special file that can be found in all Linux systems. They are also referred to as “null device files,” “void,” and sometimes “a black hole of Linux”. There is not any specific role for this file; however, if you redirect

Understanding Stdin, Stdout, and Stderr Streams in Linux

If you ever used vim, nano, or read commands, you were already using the stdin stream. Or if you were listing the files and directories from your system using the ls command, you were using the stdout stream. In case you misspelled your command or